首页 💰 Web3掘金 饼真大!Worldcoin推出L2: WorldChain,愿景:将整个世界带到链上

饼真大!Worldcoin推出L2: WorldChain,愿景:将整个世界带到链上

饼真大!Worldcoin推出L2: WorldChain,愿景:将整个世界带到链上

WorldCoin宣布推出二层网络World Chain,拟于今夏上线

Finding a scalable home for Worldcoin


Worldcoin is launching its own L2: World Chain. After many migrations within the Ethereum Ecosystem, Worldcoin can finally find its new permanent home in a place that can scale.

Worldcoin正在推出自己的L2:World Chain。在以太坊生态系统内进行了多次迁移后,Worldcoin终于可以在一个可以扩展的地方找到新的永久家园。

A brief history of scaling blockchains at Worldcoin
世通币 (Worldcoin) 区块链扩容简史

The Worldcoin protocol aims to become the largest financial and identity network. But more than that, it should do that by being the most inclusive project and allow anyone in the world to join. On a technological side, this means building systems that are able to scale to billions of users. Specifically for blockchains it was clear that this would bring networks to their limits, and far beyond.


While still early for Ethereum Rollups as a whole, the Worldcoin team came across the Hubble Project around the end of 2020 and started implementing a more performant sequencer. Hubble was somewhat original in its hybrid zk/optimistic design as it employed BLS signature aggregation and custom compressed transaction formats combined with fraud proofs. World App, an important early application developed for the Worldcoin protocol by Tools for Humanity, used Hubble in its first alpha phase and scaled using it to around 700,000 users.

虽然整个以太坊Rollups还处于早期阶段,但Worldcoin团队在2020年底左右发现了哈勃项目,并开始实施性能更高的定序器。哈勃在其混合 zk/optimistic 设计中有些原创,因为它采用了 BLS 签名聚合和自定义压缩交易格式以及欺诈证明。World App是Tools for Humanity为Worldcoin协议开发的重要早期应用程序,在第一个alpha阶段使用了Hubble,并将其扩展到约700,000名用户。

Even though very efficient (less than 12 bytes of L1 calldata for a token transfer), Hubble’s design proved to be limiting in terms of user and developer experience, as it only allowed for simple transfers and adding new transaction types would require a protocol upgrade including an additional custom fraud proof that needs to be implemented. It quickly became clear that users’ needs extended beyond just holding or sending WLD. The Worldcoin core contributors, decided to migrate to Polygon PoS network, which was at the time the only performant and cheap network in the Ethereum ecosystem. At around the same time, World App also started offering users swaps and access to other tokens as well as meta-transactions that allow for gasless transactions (because blockchain transactions should roughly be free for users in the long run!) through deploying Safe accounts for every user.

尽管非常高效(用于令牌传输的 L1 调用数据少于 12 字节),但 Hubble 的设计被证明在用户和开发人员体验方面存在局限性,因为它只允许简单的传输,并且添加新的交易类型需要协议升级,包括需要实施的额外自定义欺诈证明。很快,人们就发现,用户的需求不仅仅局限于持有或发送WLD。Worldcoin的核心贡献者决定迁移到Polygon PoS网络,这是当时以太坊生态系统中唯一高性能和廉价的网络。大约在同一时间,World App还开始通过为每个用户部署安全账户,为用户提供交换和访问其他代币以及允许无气体交易的元交易(因为从长远来看,区块链交易对用户来说应该是免费的!

Shortly before Worldcoin’s release from beta in July 2023, Worldcoin decided that Ethereum Rollups have matured enough and to migrate to OP Mainnet, at that time including around 2 Million Worldcoin users. The launch of the Worldcoin project in July 2023, however, quickly showed many areas in the overall L2 infrastructure stack that could benefit from improvement (including OP mainnet itself, relayer infrastructure, RPC providers, World App infrastructure). While Worldcoin was the first major application launching on an Ethereum L2 (and remains the largest to this day), it became clear that the L2 ecosystem was still in an early stage for major applications.

在 2023 年 7 月世通币发布测试版前不久,世通币认为以太坊 Rollups 已经足够成熟,并迁移到 OP 主网,当时包括约 200 万世通币用户。然而,2023 年 7 月推出的 Worldcoin 项目迅速展示了整个 L2 基础设施堆栈中的许多领域可以从改进中受益(包括 OP 主网本身、中继基础设施、RPC 提供商、World App 基础设施)。虽然Worldcoin是第一个在以太坊L2上推出的主要应用程序(至今仍是最大的应用程序),但很明显,L2生态系统仍处于主要应用程序的早期阶段。

The migration to a L2 also surfaced a lot of inefficient onchain activity. While execution gas fees remained low, suddenly calldata gained more importance, demanding a series of initially counterintuitive optimizations. For instance, instead of submitting transactions in their raw form individually, we employed similar techniques as some early ideas in Hubble and used compression contracts to reduce calldata consumption. This involved all sorts of little hacks like hardcoding lookup tables for contract addresses, but ultimately made it feasible for Worldcoin to operate on an Ethereum L2; however, the recent increase in overall activity across L2s caused the L1 gas prices to increase by more than 20x over sustained periods of time. Luckily, Ethereum’s “Dencun'' upgrade with EIP-4844 – for which we helped build the infrastructure for the largest trusted setup ceremony in history – shipped in February 2024, making gas prices less of an issue for Worldcoin users. Once again, the rules fundamentally changed and L2 execution gas has become the dominant cost factor, and, for now, the key bottleneck hindering broader adoption of L2s. Of course, EIP-4844 also hasn’t solved long-term scalability of Ethereum and we need long-term improvements to Ethereum mainnet, such as Danksharding.

向 L2 的迁移也暴露了许多低效的链上活动。虽然执行 gas 费用仍然很低,但突然间 calldata 变得更加重要,需要一系列最初违反直觉的优化。例如,我们没有单独提交原始形式的事务,而是采用了与哈勃望远镜早期想法类似的技术,并使用压缩合约来减少呼叫数据的消耗。这涉及到各种小技巧,比如对合约地址的查找表进行硬编码,但最终使Worldcoin在以太坊L2上运行成为可能;然而,最近 L2 整体活动的增加导致 L1 gas价格在持续一段时间内上涨了 20 倍以上。幸运的是,以太坊的 EIP-4844 “Dencun”升级——我们帮助为历史上最大的可信设置仪式构建了基础设施——于 2024 年 2 月发货,使 gas 价格对 Worldcoin 用户来说不再是问题。再一次,规则发生了根本性的变化,L2 执行 gas 已成为主要的成本因素,也是目前阻碍更广泛采用 L2 的关键瓶颈。当然,EIP-4844 也没有解决以太坊的长期可扩展性问题,我们需要对以太坊主网进行长期改进,例如 Danksharding。

Ultimately, both L1 and L2 need to undergo drastic improvements in the coming years to be able to deliver on the vision of bringing the whole world onchain. At Worldcoin Foundation, we firmly believe L2s should be the place for experimentation and innovation, and that we can significantly contribute to this mission. Committed to making a meaningful contribution, we decided to join the Superchain effort and launch World Chain, a dedicated L2.

最终,L1 和 L2 都需要在未来几年内进行大幅改进,以便能够实现将整个世界带到链上的愿景。在Worldcoin基金会,我们坚信L2应该成为实验和创新的场所,我们可以为这一使命做出重大贡献。为了做出有意义的贡献,我们决定加入超级链的努力,并推出专门的L2 World Chain。

Bringing the entire world onchain presents a monumental task, exceeding the capacity of any single entity. We recognize that collaboration is key. That’s why we are excited to be part of the Superchain alongside Optimism, Coinbase, and the wider Ethereum ecosystem.

将整个世界带到链上是一项艰巨的任务,超出了任何单个实体的能力。我们认识到合作是关键。这就是为什么我们很高兴能与 Optimism、Coinbase 和更广泛的以太坊生态系统一起成为超级链的一部分。

World Chain is an OP Stack chain that will be heavily targeted for scale. Our immediate goal is to increase the L2 block gas limit by a significant factor. As this comes with risks and cannot be done blindly, we are conducting it in a safe way, supported by researching the worst case performance scenarios. If you’re interested in working on this issue further, please consider applying in our grants program!

World Chain 是一个 OP Stack 链,将主要针对规模。我们的近期目标是将 L2 块gas 限制提高一个显著因素。由于这有风险,不能盲目地进行,因此我们以安全的方式进行,并研究最坏情况的性能方案。如果您有兴趣进一步研究这个问题,请考虑申请我们的资助计划!

We also think that L2s allow for a new trade-off space and we want to actively explore this with Reth as a “L2 native” execution client. While starting out on op-geth, our next immediate goal therefore is to switch to op-reth in production. From there on, we want to iterate quickly on performance improvements in a high-scale production environment.

我们还认为 L2 允许一个新的权衡空间,我们希望与 Reth 作为“L2 原生”执行客户端一起积极探索这一点。因此,在开始使用 op-geth 的同时,我们的下一个近期目标是在生产中切换到 op-reth。从那时起,我们希望在大规模生产环境中快速迭代性能改进。

Besides improvements on the execution layer, we’re also exploring alternative Data Availability (DA) layers including Plasma-like DA. While EIP-4844 alleviated the current throughput bottleneck, the issue is likely to resurface soon. Worldcoin’s ongoing scaling might require World Chain to switch to alternative DA layers at some point to allow for further growth without putting the burden of high fees on users.

除了对执行层的改进外,我们还在探索替代的数据可用性 (DA) 层,包括类似 Plasma 的 DA。虽然 EIP-4844 缓解了当前的吞吐量瓶颈,但该问题可能很快就会重新出现。Worldcoin的持续扩容可能需要World Chain在某个时候切换到替代DA层,以便在不给用户带来高额费用负担的情况下实现进一步增长。

All in all, there is still a lot of work to be done to actually bring the whole world onchain, but we are fortunate enough to work on this together with the whole community.


Optimism:World Chain计划参与Optimism的治理


Welcoming World Chain to the Superchain
欢迎World Chain加入超级链

Last year, Worldcoin Foundation committed to the Superchain vision for a more secure, decentralized, and equitable internet. As one of its earliest proponents, Worldcoin saw the Superchain’s potential to grow as a network of L2s that share security, a communication layer, and an open-source tech stack. The Worldcoin protocol migrated to OP Mainnet about nine months ago, and today World App is becoming its largest and fastest growing application by transaction volume, and has onboarded over 10 million people to the blockchain, globally.

去年,Worldcoin元基金会致力于实现超级链的愿景,即建立一个更安全、去中心化和公平的互联网。作为其最早的支持者之一,Worldcoin看到了超级链作为共享安全性、通信层和开源技术堆栈的L2网络的潜力。Worldcoin协议大约在九个月前迁移到OP主网,如今,World App正在成为其交易量最大、增长最快的应用程序,并已在全球范围内有超过1000万人加入区块链。

Now, as the largest application on OP Mainnet, Worldcoin is graduating to its own dedicated network. Today, the core contributors to the Worldcoin protocol are introducing World Chain: a new blockchain built on the OP Stack and designed to bring all humans onchain. World Chain marks a major milestone for both the Worldcoin protocol and the Optimism Collective.

现在,作为OP主网上最大的应用程序,Worldcoin正在逐步发展自己的专用网络。今天,Worldcoin协议的核心贡献者正在引入World Chain:一个建立在OP Stack上的新区块链,旨在将所有人带到链上。World Chain标志着Worldcoin协议和Optimism Collective的一个重要里程碑。

One of the main challenges in crypto today is that many transactions are made by bots, leading to congested networks and high fees which ultimately stifle the industry’s potential. World Chain aims to solve this by prioritizing transactions made by verified humans using World ID. Prioritizing verified humans over bots on the open and permissionless chain will help increase capacity so that people can join at scale and enjoy fast, inexpensive, and reliable transactions.

当今加密货币的主要挑战之一是许多交易是由机器人进行的,导致网络拥堵和高额费用,最终扼杀了该行业的潜力。World Chain 旨在通过优先考虑使用 World ID 的经过验证的人类进行的交易来解决这个问题,在开放和无需许可的链上优先考虑经过验证的人类而不是机器人将有助于提高容量,以便人们可以大规模加入并享受快速、廉价和可靠的交易。

Initiatives like this are fast tracked by the OP Stack, and demonstrate the Superchain’s many launchpads for ambitious builders with bold ideas.

像这样的举措被OP Stack快速跟踪,并展示了超级链的许多启动板,供雄心勃勃的建设者使用,并有大胆的想法。

The Superchain: A Sustainable Economic Model超级链:可持续的经济模式
Projects like Worldcoin leverage the OP Stack to build on a shared standard blockchain software, and reap the benefits of scalability and low fees from building on the OP Stack. Optimism’s ecosystem gets a share of the revenue generated by chains, including World Chain, and that revenue goes back to funding open source development and other improvements to the network, benefitting builders and users alike. This economic model gives the Superchain the super power to scale Ethereum’s tech, via the OP Stack, and its values as a self-sustaining network.

像Worldcoin这样的项目利用OP Stack建立在共享的标准区块链软件上,并通过在OP Stack上构建来获得可扩展性和低费用的好处。Optimism 的生态系统从包括 World Chain 在内的连锁店产生的收入中分得一杯羹,这些收入将用于资助开源开发和网络的其他改进,使建设者和用户都受益。这种经济模式赋予了超级链通过OP堆栈扩展以太坊技术的超能力,以及其作为自我维持网络的价值。

By joining the Superchain, World Chain also benefits by being able to interact with other chains like Base, Mode, OP Mainnet, and Zora. Developers supporting Worldcoin continue to contribute directly to the Ethereum network, and collaborate with the Superchain ecosystem on shared infrastructure. Following the lead of early OP Chains, World Chain also plans to actively participate in Optimism’s governance.

通过加入超级链,World Chain 还可以与 Base、Mode、OP Mainnet 和 Zora 等其他链进行交互。支持Worldcoin的开发者继续直接为以太坊网络做出贡献,并与Superchain生态系统在共享基础设施上进行合作。继早期OP Chains之后,World Chain还计划积极参与Optimism的治理。

Proving Humanness Onchain在链上证明人性

The heart of Worldcoin’s vision is to bring all humans onchain. Optimism has collaborated with Worldcoin’s core contributors to put new digital identity tools into practice, allowing developers to use their World ID to access funds on the Superchain faucet.

Worldcoin愿景的核心是将所有人类都带上链。Optimism 与 Worldcoin 的核心贡献者合作,将新的数字身份工具付诸实践,允许开发人员使用他们的 World ID 在 Superchain 水龙头上访问资金。

The Optimism Collective envisions a future where the digital identity ecosystem expands, enabling people to signal their contributions to governance, DeFi, social media, gaming and beyond. Together, Optimism and Worldcoin are committed to a scalable, inclusive future that unlocks onchain identity and builds a more equitable digital economy for all.

Optimism Collective设想了一个数字身份生态系统扩展的未来,使人们能够表明他们对治理、DeFi、社交媒体、游戏等的贡献。Optimism和Worldcoin共同致力于创造一个可扩展的、包容性的未来,解锁链上身份,为所有人建立一个更公平的数字经济。


  • World Chain 是一个 OP Stack 链,发一个链本身并无技术难度。

    1. 人类优先于BOT,World Chain 引入World ID,用于链上身份验证,很有价值。天然防女巫。
    2. 免费Gas费;
    3. WorldCoin应用充当钱包。针对NFT等应用,可避免BOT抢先问题。
  • WLD、OKX等纷纷以太坊上做L2,以太坊仍具价值。有人问,我们真的需要这么多L2吗?就好比,互联网上真的需要那么多网站吗?

关于作者: 苏江



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